A COVID-19 symbol is more delicate than the N95 respirator; it is hard to think about. The mask fits closely to the face and is able to filter out from the air 95 percent of airborne contaminants, including viruses, which most safety systems can not do. This is a life-saving system that is dangerously ineffective. As such, the global response to COVID-19 has been an intense challenge.
How has a frail polymer cup become the 21st century's most essential medical device? In 1910, everything began with a little-known physician who tried to save the planet from one of the most dangerous diseases ever known.
The First Masks
Long before we were introduced to bacteria and viruses people were improvising masks, according to Christos Lynteris. He is a senior lecturer in Social Anthropology at St. Andrews University and a specialist in medical masks’ history.
It refers to paintings from the Renaissance period that cover people's noses with handcrafts to prevent illness. In 1720 also there are pictures from Marseilles, the epicenter of the bubonic plague, showing snipers and bodies handling cloth around their faces, even though the pictures of rats transmitted the plague.
The principle of miasma is the driving force behind the creation of Europe-wide popular plague masks, which doctors who diagnosed the plague and labeled the sick with a cluster would wear. These elongated masks were similar to large beaks in birds, and they were filled with incense at two nostrils at the edge of the mask. People believed that they would be protected from the plague by shielding themselves from the smell of the plague.
Bacteria were known from scientists by the late 1870s. When the modern field of microbiology grew, Miasma dropped from fashion. But the next thing looked a lot like what had previously arrived, except the mad birds.
The Next Stage of Masks’ Invention
In 1897 the first surgical masks were worn by physicians. They were not anything more than an esteemed handkerchief attached to their ears and were not supposed to filter airborne disease — still not today's operating masks. They have been used to prevent physicians from sneezing or coughing gout on injuries during surgery.
It is important to distinguish a mask from a respirator. That is why healthcare practitioners are frustrated that if respirators are not available, they are told to wear operatory masks. Not only are masks made of various materials, but they are often loosely positioned on the face, allowing particles to arrive from the side. Inhalation systems create a seal that is airtight such that inhalation is filtered.
Evolution of N95 Respirators
There are some historical predecessors to N95 respirators. One was a cloth mask pattern by Lien-teh Wu, who worked for the Chinese Imperial Court during the Manchurian outbreak of pestilence in the fall of 1910. He was born in Cambridge in Penang and studied medicine. Wu was young, and Mandarin spoke lazily. According to Lynteris, he was "absolutely unimportant" in an affliction that soon attracted international attention and doctors around the world. However, Wu found that the plague did not spread through fleas, as expected, by air after an autopsy on one of the victims.
Wu created a more hard mask from gaze and cotton, wrapped around his face tightly, and added a variety of layers of fabric to filter inhalations, as he spread over the surgery masks he had seen in the west. His innovation was an advance, but even some doctors questioned the feasibility of this invention.
The mask of Wu was won because it shielded users from bacteria in empirical research. It was also a brilliant concept, according to Lynteris. It could be manufactured with inexpensive, ready-to-supply materials. The production of masks increased to unknown numbers between January and February 1911. Medical professionals wore them, soldiers wore them, and a few wore each day, too. This helped not only to prevent the plague's spread but also made the masks a symbol of modern medical science that looked in the eye at an epidemic.
History of N95 Respirators
The first mask to combat bacteria and viruses was used during the 1918 flu pandemic. Another precursor is gas masks created by miners during the First World War. For the fiberglass filters and rubber construction, they were reusable but big and uncomfortable.
In 1956, the mass production of filtering fake faces began in the Soviet Union. The air was cleaned from a nonwoven filtering material composed of polymer fibers with a high electrostatic charge. More than 60 billion breathers have been produced for 60 years. The developers have sadly overestimated performance, leading to serious problems in employers' personal protective equipment choice.
In the 1970 's requirements for single-use breathing, devices were developed by the Mine and NIOSH Office. A first 3M N95 respirator, approved in 1972, was designed. 3M used a special method that is built over decades earlier and used in items as ready-made bows and cups, and Sara Little Turnbull, a popular designer pioneered its usage in a large variety of products.
Originally for industrial applications, N95 respirators became the medical standard following a virus-blocking technique developed by Professor Peter Tsai of the University of Tennessee and patented in 1995. A technology to prevent the spread of medicament resistant tuberculosis was initially developed. After the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, Tsai ended its retirement by examining N95 mask decontamination to relieve the deficit linked to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Due to legal expenses and international competition, several US companies stopped making N95 respirators in the 2000s.