National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health:
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the government Institute of the United States responsible for research and the delivery of work-related accidents and diseases prevention recommendations. Under the United States, NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Reduce workplace cancer, cardiovascular disease, other chronic conditions, and adverse reproductive effects. The responsibilities of NIOSH; reduce hearing loss in occupations, occupational immune, infectious, and dermal disease reduction, reduce musculoskeletal workplace conditions, occupational respiratory disease reduction, enhance protection in the workplace to reduce serious injuries, promote the design and welfare of secure and safe jobs.
NIOSH was developed to help ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the provision of workplace safety and health research, knowledge, education, and training.
Surgical masks are called facial masks or face masks that are surgical. These are worn by practitioners in the medical industry and healthcare staff. It was used by medical professionals during the procedure process. Surgical masks are specifically designed to shield medical figures from splashes of body fluid. This mask also has the ability to protect against viral infections as well.
Surgical masks do not protect individuals in the air from viruses and bacteria. Because they're small in number, actually. They've been filtered out. The best way to wear it is to be outward on the dark blue side and inside to face on the white layer side. Surgical masks utilize non - woven cloth and are generated using a melt blowing technique. The use of surgical masks during the pandemic of COVID-19 is being debated.
NIOSH about Surgical masks as compare Respirator
In healthcare environments, respirators and surgical masks are commonly used. For infection prevention, all forms of personal protective equipment (PPE) can be used, but only respirators can be used for respiratory protection against chemical hazards in the air. Since both respirators and surgical masks are used in healthcare environments, the distinctions between them are important for employers and employees to recognize.
A respirator is manufactured to prevent the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants such as specks of dust, gases, vapors, and infectious agents associated with inhaling small and large droplets of particles; OSHA's respiratory safety and PPE guidelines cover instructions on proper selection and usage.
A surgical mask only offers barrier protection against large-particle droplets and does not effectively filter small particles, fumes, or vapors inhaled.6-7 A surgical mask is used mainly to shield patients and healthcare workers from people that may have a respiratory infection or to protect medical instruments and supplies that are sterilized or disinfected.
Study about the filtration level of Surgical masks:
Filter efficiency was shown to be highly variable in experiments evaluating the performance of surgical mask filters using a standardized airflow. When tested using the test parameters for NIOSH certification, the collection efficiency of the surgical mask filter can range from less than 10 percent to almost 90 percent for different manufacturers' masks.
The reported results of the FDA-required tests do not predict their success in these studies. The FDA did not conduct an objective assessment of the efficiency of the surgical mask philter, nor does it report test results from manufacturers. Details about the effects of the filter test for FDA-cleared surgical masks is difficult to find in many cases. The one clear exception to this filter efficiency is the class of FDA-cleared surgical masks known as Surgical N95 Respirators.
According to NIOSH, it is necessary to keep in mind that the overall performance of any particulate filtering facepiece depends, first of all on good filter performance. It would not be possible to have a high degree of security for a facepiece or mask that suits well on the face but has a weak filter.
Surgical masks are for Patients not for Health professionals:
Surgical masks are not manufactured to safeguard the wearer from hazards in the air. The spread of infectious particles expelled by the wearer is regulated by these devices.
Surgical masks are used to help protect a hygienic environment from contamination by particles expelled by the wearer, such as those caused by coughs or sneezes, such as the area surrounding the site of a surgical incision. Surgical masks also help to shield the wearer from splashes, sprays, or contact with dirty hands as a physical barrier.
The NIOSH and FDA regulations do not need surgical masks to form a seal against the face of the patient or to provide a filtration level that provides the user with aerosol exposure protection.
How can I test surgical masks by NIOSH?
Respirator filters must comply with NIOSH-established stringent certification tests (42 CFR Part 84). The NIOSH tests use what are called criteria of worst case," including:
Sodium chloride (for filters of the N-series) or dioctyl phthalate oil (for filters of the R- and P-series) measure aerosols with a mean aerodynamic particle mass of approximately 0.3 μm, which is in the MPPS range for most filters.
85 L/min airflow rate, which reflects a reasonably high work rate, Conditioning for 24 hours until checking at 85 percent relative humidity and 38 ° C/
Initial resistance to breathing (airflow resistance) of not more than 35 mm water column* height pressure and initial resistance to exhalation of not more than 25 mm water column height pressure.